Language - Quechua language

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Quechua language

Quechua (, US also ; ), usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Peruvian Andes and highlands of South America. Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers. Approximately 25% (7.7 million) of Peruvians speak a Quechuan language. It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of a family of the Inca Empire. The Spanish colonisers initially encouraged its use, but from the middle of their reign they suppressed it. However, Quechua ultimately survived, and variants are still widely spoken today.

Quechua had already expanded across wide ranges of the central Andes long before the expansion of the Inca Empire. The Inca were one among many peoples in present-day Peru who already spoke a form of Quechua. In the Cusco region, Quechua was influenced by neighboring languages such as Aymara, which caused it to develop as distinct. In similar ways, diverse dialects developed in different areas, borrowing from local languages, when the Inca Empire ruled and imposed Quechua as the official language.

After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in the 16th century, Quechua continued to be used widely by the indigenous peoples as the "common language". It was officially recognized by the Spanish administration and many Spanish learned it in order to communicate with local peoples. Clergy of the Catholic Church adopted Quechua to use as the language of evangelization. Given its use by the Catholic missionaries, the range of Quechua continued to expand in some areas.

In the late 18th century, colonial officials ended administrative and religious use of Quechua, banning it from public use in Peru after the Túpac Amaru II rebellion of indigenous peoples. The Crown banned even "loyal" pro-Catholic texts in Quechua, such as Garcilaso de la Vega's Comentarios Reales.

Despite a brief revival of the language immediately after the Latin American nations achieved independence in the 19th century, the prestige of Quechua had decreased sharply. Gradually its use declined so that it was spoken mostly by indigenous people in the more isolated and conservative rural areas. Nevertheless, in the 21st century, Quechua language speakers number 8 to 10 million people across South America, the most speakers of any indigenous language.

The oldest written records of the language are by missionary Domingo de Santo Tomás, who arrived in Peru in 1538 and learned the language from 1540. He published his Grammatica o arte de la lengua general de los indios de los reynos del Perú (Grammar or Art of the General Language of the Indians of the Royalty of Peru) in 1560.

Country

Bolivia

Bolivia (, ; Mborivia ; Puliwya ; Wuliwya ), officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia ) is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre while the seat of government and financial center is located in La Paz. The largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales (tropical lowlands) a mostly flat region in the east of Bolivia.

The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments. Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, the 27th largest in the world and the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere.

Peru

Peru (undefined ; Piruw Republika ; Piruw Suyu ), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.

Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE.

Photograph

-Classification-Quechua (subgrupos)
Classification
Quechua (subgrupos)
-Current status-El quechua como lengua materna (censo nacional 2007)
Current status
El quechua como lengua materna (censo nacional 2007)
Quechua language
Quechua language
Quechua language
Quechua language
Quechua language

Language

Quechua language (English)  Lingue quechua (Italiano)  Quechua (Nederlands)  Quechua (Français)  Quechua (Deutsch)  Língua quíchua (Português)  Кечуанские языки (Русский)  Lenguas quechuas (Español)  Język keczua (Polski)  克丘亞語 (中文)  Quechua (Svenska)  Limbi quechua (Română)  ケチュア語族 (日本語)  Кечуа (Українська)  Кечуа (Български)  케추아어족 (한국어)  Ketšua (Suomi)  Bahasa Quechua (Bahasa Indonesia)  Kečujų kalba (Lietuvių)  Quechua (Dansk)  Kečuánština (Česky)  Keçuva dilleri (Türkçe)  Кечуа (Српски / Srpski)  Ketšua keel (Eesti)  Kečuánčina (Slovenčina)  Kecsua nyelv (Magyar)  Kečuanski jezik (Hrvatski)  ภาษาเกชัว (ไทย)  Kečuanščina (Slovenščina)  Kečvu valoda (Latviešu)  Γλώσσες Κέτσουα (Ελληνικά)  Nhóm ngôn ngữ Quechua (Tiếng Việt) 
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