Kyrgyzstan ( ; Kyrgyzstan ; or Кыргызстан), officially the Kyrgyz Republic ( Kyrgyz Respublikasy; Kyrgyzskaya Respublika), formerly known as Kirghizia, is a country located in Central Asia. Landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.
Despite Kyrgyzstan's struggle for political stabilization among ethnic conflicts, revolts, economic troubles, transitional governments, and political party conflicts, it maintains a unitary parliamentary republic.
Colour revolutions took place in 2005 and 2010.
The official language, Kyrgyz, is closely related to the other Turkic languages; however, the country is under a strong cultural influence from Russia and is rather Russified. The majority of the population (64%) are nondenominational Muslims.
Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Turkic Council, the TÜRKSOY community and the United Nations.
Kyrgyzstan has stated its desire to join the Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union currently consisting of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the Russian Federation.