Central Equatoria State was one of the original ten states of South Sudan. With an area of 43,033 km², it was the smallest of the original South Sudanese states. Its previous name was Bahr al Jabal, named after a tributary of the White Nile that flows through the state. It was renamed to its present name of Central Equatoria in the first Interim Legislative Assembly on 1 April 2005 under the government of Southern Sudan. Central Equatoria seceded from Sudan as part of the Republic of South Sudan on 9 July 2011. The former state's capital of Juba is also the national capital of South Sudan. The state split into three smaller states on 2 October 2015.
Central Equatoria, like other states in South Sudan, was sub-divided into counties which are further divided into Payams, then Bomas. Each county is headed by a County Commissioner, appointed by the State Governor in consultation with the President. They were
* Juba County - Stephen Wani (Previous Thomas Peter Gore and Dr. Pius Subek)
* Lainya County - Huda Micah Laila (Previous Suba Samuel Manase and Col. Vincent Kujo Lobang)
* Morobo County - Moses Simon Soro (Previous Ofeni Ngota and Col. Richard Remo Soro)
* Terekeka County Jacob Gore (Previous Clement Maring, Ali Malou and Wani Nyambur Boughta)
* Yei County - Juma David Augustine (Previous Elia Waiwai and David Lokonga Moses)
* Kajo Keji county
Important cities and towns of Central Equatoria were: Juba, Kajo Keji, Liria, Mongilla,Wonduruba, South Sudan Wonduruba, Rokon, Tali, Terkeke, Yei, Ji-Meje, Tombek, Tindilo, Kaya, Muni and Rijong, Bubudo(Nyori). The major border crossing to the Democratic Republic of the Congo is at Dimo, a village in the former state.