National flag - Flag of Indonesia

National flag  >  Flag of Indonesia

Flag of Indonesia

The Flag of Indonesia is a simple bicolour with two equal horizontal bands, red (top) and white (bottom) with an overall ratio of 2:3. It was introduced and hoisted in public at the Indonesian Declaration of Independence on 17 August 1945 in Pegangsaan Timur street in Jakarta, and again when the Dutch formally transferred sovereignty on 27 December 1949. The design of the flag has remained unchanged since.

The flag of Indonesia is graphically identical to the Flag of Monaco, with a slight difference only in the ratio of its dimensions. The Flag of Poland has similar dimensions but has the colors reversed: white on top and red on the bottom.

The Naval Jack of Indonesia is reserved for sole use by the Indonesian Navy. It flies from the mast of every active Indonesian war ship. The design of the jack is described as nine alternating stripes of red and white. It is nicknamed Ular-ular Perang (War Pennant or literally "War Snakes"), probably due to the stripes' design. The naval jack dates to the age of Majapahit Empire. This empire, renowned for its great maritime strength, flew similar jacks on its vessels.

The flag's colours are derived from the banner of the 13th century Majapahit Empire. However, it has been suggested that the red and white symbolism can trace its origin to the older common Austronesian mythology of the duality of Mother Earth (red) and Father Sky (white). This is why these colours appear in so many flags throughout Austronesia, from Tahiti to Madagascar. The earliest records of the red and white panji or pataka (a long flag on a curved bamboo pole) can be found in the Pararaton chronicle; according to this source, the Jayakatwang troops from Gelang-Gelang hoisted the red and white banner during their invasion of Singhasari in the early 12th century. This suggests that even before the Majapahit era, the red and white colours were already revered and used as the kingdom's banner in the Kediri era (1042-c.1222).

Red and white textile colouring was available in ancient Indonesia. White is the natural colour of woven cotton fabrics, while red is one of the earliest natural dyes, acquired either from teak leaves, the flowers of Averrhoa bilimbi, or the skin of mangosteen fruits.

It was not only the Javanese kingdoms that used red and white. The battle flag of King Sisingamangaraja IX of Batak lands bore an image of white twin swords called piso gaja dompak against a red background. During the Aceh War of 1873-1904, Aceh warriors used a battle flag with the image of a sword, star and crescent, sun, and some Quranic script in white on a red background. The red and white flag of the Buginese Bone kingdom in South Sulawesi is called Woromporang. The Balinese Badung (Puri Pamecutan) royal banner is red, white, and black, probably of Majapahit origin. During the Java War (1825–1830) Prince Diponegoro also used a red and white banner.

In the early 20th century these colours were revived by students and then nationalists, as an expression of nationalism against the Dutch. The modern red and white flag which was first flown in Java in 1928, was prohibited under Dutch rule. Upon Indonesia's declaration of independence on 17 August 1945 it was adopted as the national flag, and has been in use ever since. After Indonesia's independence was recognized, Monaco, which had a similar flag, filed a complaint which was largely ignored.

The flag featured in a well-known incident during the Indonesian War of Independence when during the lead-up to the Battle of Surabaya in late 1945, Indonesian youths removed a colonial Dutch flag flying over the Yamato Hotel, tore off the blue strip and re-hoisted it as an Indonesian flag. The Hotel was subsequently renamed Hotel Merdeka, meaning Independence Hotel.

The official name of the flag is Sang Saka Merah-Putih (meaning "lofty bicolour Red and White") according to Article 35 of the 1945 Constitution. The flag is commonly called Bendera Merah-Putih (Red-and-White Flag). Occasionally, it is also called Sang Dwiwarna (The bicolour). Sang Saka Merah-Putih (The Lofty Red-and-White) refers to the historical flag called Bendera Pusaka (heirloom flag) and its replica. The Bendera Pusaka is the flag that was flown in front of Sukarno's house after he proclaimed Indonesia's independence on 17 August 1945. The original Bendera Pusaka was sewn by Fatmawati, and was hoisted every year in front of the presidential palace during the independence day ceremony. It was hoisted for the last time on 17 August 1968. Since then it has been preserved and replaced by a replica since the original flag was deemed to be too fragile.

Several opinions have been expressed on the meaning of the red and white in the Indonesian flag. One opinion is that the red stands for courage, while the white stands for purity. Another is that red represents the human body or physical life, while white represents the soul or spiritual life; together they stand for a complete human being.''
National flag 
Flag of Indonesia

Country - Indonesia

Indonesia (, ; Indonesian: ), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia ), is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 km2, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, contains more than half of the country's population.

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan, Singapore and India.
Neighbourhood - Country  

  •  Malaysia 
  •  East Timor 
  •  Papua New Guinea 

Language

Flag of Indonesia (English)  Bandiera dell'Indonesia (Italiano)  Vlag van Indonesië (Nederlands)  Drapeau de l'Indonésie (Français)  Flagge Indonesiens (Deutsch)  Bandeira da Indonésia (Português)  Флаг Индонезии (Русский)  Bandera de Indonesia (Español)  Flaga Indonezji (Polski)  印度尼西亞國旗 (中文)  Indonesiens flagga (Svenska)  Drapelul Indoneziei (Română)  インドネシアの国旗 (日本語)  Прапор Індонезії (Українська)  Национално знаме на Индонезия (Български)  인도네시아의 국기 (한국어)  Indonesian lippu (Suomi)  Bendera Indonesia (Bahasa Indonesia)  Indonezijos vėliava (Lietuvių)  Indonesiens flag (Dansk)  Indonéská vlajka (Česky)  Endonezya bayrağı (Türkçe)  Застава Индонезије (Српски / Srpski)  Indoneesia lipp (Eesti)  Vlajka Indonézie (Slovenčina)  Indonézia zászlaja (Magyar)  Zastava Indonezije (Hrvatski)  ธงชาติอินโดนีเซีย (ไทย)  Indonēzijas karogs (Latviešu)  Σημαία της Ινδονησίας (Ελληνικά)  Quốc kỳ Indonesia (Tiếng Việt) 
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