Language - Chuvash language

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Chuvash language

Chuvash (Чӑвашла, Căvašla, Çovaşla; ) is a Turkic language spoken in European Russia, primarily in the Chuvash Republic and adjacent areas. It is the only surviving member of the Oghur branch of Turkic languages. Because of this, Chuvash has diverged considerably from the other Turkic languages, which typically demonstrate mutual intelligibility among one another to varying degrees.

The writing system for the Chuvash language is based on the Cyrillic script, employing all of the letters used in the Russian alphabet and adding four letters of its own: Ӑ, Ӗ, Ҫ and Ӳ.

Chuvash is the native language of the Chuvash people and an official language of Chuvashia. It is spoken by 1,640,000 persons in Russia and another 34,000 in other countries. 86% of ethnic Chuvash and 8% of the people of other ethnicities living in Chuvashia claimed knowledge of Chuvash language during the 2002 census. Despite that, and although Chuvash is taught at schools and sometimes used in the media, it is considered endangered, because Russian dominates in most spheres of life, and few children learning the language are likely to become active users.

A fairly significant production and publication of literature in Chuvash still continues. According to UNESCO's Index Translationum, at least 202 books translated from Chuvash were published in other languages (mostly Russian) since ca. 1979. However, as with most other languages of the former USSR, most of the translation activity took place before the dissolution of the USSR: out of the 202 translations, 170 books were published in the USSR, and just 17, in the post-1991 Russia (mostly, in the 1990s). A similar situation takes place with the translation of books from other languages (mostly Russian) into Chuvash (the total of 175 titles published since ca. 1979, but just 18 of them in post-1991 Russia).

Country

Russia

Russia, officially the Russian Federation , is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17125200 km2, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east.

Language

Chuvash language (English)  Lingua ciuvascia (Italiano)  Tsjoevasjisch (Nederlands)  Tchouvache (Français)  Tschuwaschische Sprache (Deutsch)  Língua tchuvache (Português)  Чувашский язык (Русский)  Idioma chuvasio (Español)  Język czuwaski (Polski)  楚瓦什語 (中文)  Tjuvasjiska (Svenska)  Limba ciuvașă (Română)  チュヴァシ語 (日本語)  Чуваська мова (Українська)  Чувашки език (Български)  추바시어 (한국어)  Tšuvassin kieli (Suomi)  Bahasa Chuvash (Bahasa Indonesia)  Čiuvašų kalba (Lietuvių)  Čuvaština (Česky)  Çuvaşça (Türkçe)  Чувашки језик (Српски / Srpski)  Tšuvaši keel (Eesti)  Čuvaština (Slovenčina)  Csuvas nyelv (Magyar)  Čuvaški jezik (Hrvatski)  ภาษาชูวัช (ไทย)  Čuvašu valoda (Latviešu)  Τσουβασική γλώσσα (Ελληνικά)  Tiếng Chuvash (Tiếng Việt) 
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