Oleśnica ( or Öls) is a town in the Trzebnickie Hills in southwestern Poland with 36,951 inhabitants (2006). It is situated in Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 it was in the former Wrocław Voivodeship). It is the seat of Oleśnica County, and also of the rural district of Gmina Oleśnica (although it is not part of the territory of the latter, the town being an urban gmina in its own right).
The city has been part of an important trade route between Wrocław and the Greater Poland region, and had close ties with Kraków. It was the site of an important printing press and ''gymnasium''. From the 13th century, it had a coin mint.