Map - Northern Ireland

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann ; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, and the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments".

Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom. Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority, mostly Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former generally see themselves as British and the latter generally see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned.

For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, and chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties. The 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, and sporadic violence has continued.

Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. The initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism, investment and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year.

Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best. Some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish (e.g., poet Seamus Heaney and actor Liam Neeson) while others prefer to identify as British (e.g. actor Sir Kenneth Branagh). Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom. In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games.

The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, though, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English (mainly Anglican) and Scottish (mainly Presbyterian) settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England, Scotland and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government. Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry (1689) and the Battle of the Boyne (1690) in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants (both Anglican and Presbyterian).

Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV (the "Sun King"), the powerful King of France who had been in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, however, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, and contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick (October 1691), a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, which was felt to be a betrayal. The intention of the laws was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community. In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. These events escalated at the end of the century following an event known as the Battle of the Diamond, which saw the supremacy of the Anglican and Presbyterian Peep o'Day Boys over the Catholic Defenders and leading to the formation of the Anglican Orange Order. A rebellion in 1798 led by the cross-community Belfast-based Society of the United Irishmen and inspired by the French Revolution sought to break the constitutional ties between Ireland and Britain and unite Irish people of all religions. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws (and to prevent the spread of French-style republicanism to Ireland), the government of the Kingdom of Great Britain pushed for the two kingdoms to be merged. The new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London.

Some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies between 1717 and 1775. It is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the United States, along with many Scotch-Irish Canadians in Canada.

 

Map - Northern Ireland

Latitude / Longitude : 54° 30' 0" N / 6° 30' 0" W | Time zone : UTC+0:0 / UTC+1 | Currency : GBP | Telephone : 44  

Map

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Photograph

Northern Ireland-Golf-Rory McIlroy watches drive flight (crowd, landscape orientation)
Golf
Rory McIlroy watches drive flight (crowd, landscape orientation)
Northern Ireland-Association football-George best 1976
Association football
George best 1976
Northern Ireland-Symbols-Flax flowers
Symbols
Flax flowers
Northern Ireland-Symbols-Fountain (04)
Symbols
Fountain (04)
Northern Ireland-Culture-Ulster Covenant Commemoration Parade, Belfast, September 2012 (010)
Culture
Ulster Covenant Commemoration Parade, Belfast, September 2012 (010)
Northern Ireland-Ulster Scots-Map showing the percentage of people aged 3+ claiming to have some ability in Ulster Scots in the 2011 census
Ulster Scots
Map showing the percentage of people aged 3+ claiming to have some ability in Ulster Scots in the 20...
Northern Ireland-Irish-Map of those with some ability in Irish in the 2011 census in Northern Ireland
Irish
Map of those with some ability in Irish in the 2011 census in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland-Languages-English dialects in Ulster contrast
Languages
English dialects in Ulster contrast
Northern Ireland-Citizenship and identity-Predominant passport held northern ireland
Citizenship and identity
Predominant passport held northern ireland
Northern Ireland-Citizenship and identity-Most common nationality 2011
Citizenship and identity
Most common nationality 2011
Northern Ireland-Geography and climate-Marble Arch Caves - Skreen Hill streamway
Geography and climate
Marble Arch Caves - Skreen Hill streamway
Northern Ireland-Economy-'Titanic Quarter' development, Abercorn Basin, Belfast - geograph.org.uk - 1378153
Economy
'Titanic Quarter' development, Abercorn Basin, Belfast - geograph.org.uk - 1378153
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Religion or religion brought up in
Northern Ireland-Transport-Approaching Seahill station - geograph.org.uk - 243422
Transport
Approaching Seahill station - geograph.org.uk - 243422
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Geography and climate
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Northern Ireland-Geography and climate-Hare's Gap - geograph.org.uk - 66827
Geography and climate
Hare's Gap - geograph.org.uk - 66827
Northern Ireland-Geography and climate-Lough Neagh - geograph.org.uk - 488526
Geography and climate
Lough Neagh - geograph.org.uk - 488526
Northern Ireland-Geography and climate-Northern Ireland Köppen
Geography and climate
Northern Ireland Köppen
Northern Ireland-Alternative names-Unionist mural, Shankill - panoramio
Alternative names
Unionist mural, Shankill - panoramio
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Country - United Kingdom

Flag of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom (UK ), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, informally as Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242500 km2, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

The UK is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state. The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool.
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