Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Swaziland ( or ; Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini) and sometimes called kaNgwane or Eswatini, is a sovereign state in Southern Africa surroundedwith the exception of Mozambique to its eastby South Africa. It and its ethnic people take their names from Mswati II, the 19th-century king under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified.
Swaziland is one of the smallest countries in Africa. It is no more than north to south and east to west. Regardless, the country has a very diverse topography of varying climate with a cool and mountainous highveld and a hot and dry lowveld. The population is primarily ethnic Swazis whose language is siSwati. They established their kingdom in the mid 18th century under the leadership of Ngwane III; the present boundaries were drawn up in 1881. After the Anglo-Boer War, Swaziland was a British protectorate from 1903 until 1967, regaining independence on 6 September 1968.