The XIV Los Ríos Region (Spanish: XIV Región de Los Ríos, literally in Spanish: The Rivers) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions. Its capital is Valdivia. Pop. 356,396 (2002 census). It began to operate as region on October 2, 2007. It was created by subdividing the Los Lagos Region in southern Chile. It consists of two provinces: Valdivia and—the newly created—Ranco that was formerly part of Valdivia Province.
The new region was established in consideration of territorial, historical and geographic factors. The original Los Lagos Region was one of the largest, most diverse regions in the country, and the integration of the Province of Valdivia was difficult because of its background which differed from the four other provinces of the region, especially the southern provinces of Chiloé and Palena.
Some differences include:
Valdivia has a colonial past while most of the Los Lagos Region was colonized in the 19th century.
Valdivia's economy is more oriented to forestry, while the other provinces are more active in fishing and cattle farming.
Valdivia, with 356,396 inhabitants, was the most populated province in the Los Lagos Region, while Palena, in contrast, has only 18,971 residents.