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Libya , (Libyan Arabic,Amazigh: ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ Libya), officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost , Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, and is the 17th largest country in the world.
The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is home to over one million of Libya's six million people. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world.
Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the Late Bronze Age. The Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, and Ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Persians, Egyptians and Greek-Egyptians before becoming a part of the Roman Empire. Libya was an early center of Christianity. During the 7th Century, invasions brought Islam and Arab colonization. In the sixteenth century the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 18th and 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the twentieth century Italian occupation of Libya and large-scale Italian immigration. Italian rule ended during the Second World War, during which Libya was an important area of warfare. Libya became an independent kingdom in 1951. In 1969 Muammar Gaddafi seized power, beginning a period of improved living standards and brutal suppression of dissent.
A civil war and NATO-led military intervention in 2011 resulted in the death of Muammar Gaddafi, and the end of his 42-year rule. Since then, Libya has experienced instability and political violence. Instability has severely affected both commerce and oil production.
Libya is theoretically governed by a parliament known as the House of Representatives elected in the June 2014 elections. However the parliament's control of the country is severely limited by the internal conflict against Islamist militias, which control Tripoli. Officially, the House of Representatives took over from the General National Congress, which was elected in July 2012 to serve until January 2014. However, a minority of the General National Congress, having lost the elections, reconvened in August 2014. This New General National Congress meets in Tripoli, while the elected House of Representatives meets in Tobruk.