Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya (Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi. Kenya's territory lies on the equator and overlies the East African Rift, covering a diverse and expansive terrain that extends roughly from Lake Victoria to Lake Turkana (formerly called Lake Rudolf) and further south-east to the Indian Ocean. It is bordered by Tanzania to the south and south-west, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east. Kenya covers 581309 km2 has a population of approximately 48 million. Kenya's capital and largest city is Nairobi, while its oldest city and first capital is the coastal city of Mombasa. Kisumu City is the third largest city and a critical inland port at Lake Victoria. Other important urban centres include Nakuru and Eldoret.
Kenya's geographical and topographical diversity yields a variety of climates, including a warm and humid coastline, temperate savannah grasslands in the interior, temperate and forested hilly areas in the west, arid and semi-arid areas near the Somali border and Lake Turkana, and an Equatorial climate around Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical freshwater lake. Kenya subsequently support an abundance of flora and fauna, many of which are protected by wildlife reserves and national parks, such as the East and West Tsavo National Park, Amboseli National Park, Maasai Mara, Lake Nakuru National Park, and Aberdares National Park. The country is the birthplace of the modern safari and hosts several World Heritage Sites such as Lamu.
Kenya is part of the African Great Lakes region, which has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic period. By the first millennium C.E., the Bantu expansion had reached the area from West-Central Africa. Its territory was at the crossroads of the Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan and Afroasiatic cultures, today representing most major ethnolinguistic groups in Africa. Bantu and Nilotic populations together constitute around 97% of Kenya's population. Trade with the Arabs began in the first century C.E., leading to the introduction of Islam and Arab culture to coastal regions, and the development of a distinct Swahili culture. European exploration of the interior began in the 19th century, with the British Empire establishing a protectorate in 1895, followed by the Kenya Colony in 1920. Kenya gained independence in December 1963 but remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. In relative terms, it has been relatively stable and democratic in the ensuing decades, albeit intercepted by periods of authoritarianism and political violence, most recently in 2007. Following a referendum in August 2010 and adoption of a new constitution, Kenya is now divided into 47 semiautonomous counties governed by elected governors.
Kenya's economy is the largest in eastern and central Africa, with Nairobi serving as a major regional commercial hub. Agriculture is the largest sector; tea and coffee are traditional cash crops, while fresh flowers are a fast-growing export. The service industry is also a major economic driver, particularly tourism. Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, though some international trade organisations categorise it as part of the Greater Horn of Africa. Africa is Kenya's largest export market, followed by the European Union.