Map - Estonia (Republic of Estonia)

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Estonia (Republic of Estonia)

Flag of Estonia
Estonia (Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45227 km2, water 2839 km2, land area 42388 km2, and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.

The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I. Initially democratic, after the Great Depression Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II (1939–1945), Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany, ultimately being incorporated into the former as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991.

The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union since joining in 2004, the economic monetary Eurozone, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Schengen Area, and of the Western military alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU. Estonia ranks very high in the Human Development Index, and performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education, and press freedom (third in the world in 2012 and 2007). Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care, free education, and the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD. One of the world's most digitally advanced societies, in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency.

In the Estonian language, the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas, meaning "country people" or "people of the soil". The land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning "Country Realm" or "Land Realm".

One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia is that it originated from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania (ca. 98 AD). The historic Aesti were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric. The geographical areas between Aesti and Estonia do not match, with Aesti being farther south.

Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to a land called Eistland, as the country is still called in Icelandic, and close to the Danish, German, Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian term Estland for the country. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia.

Esthonia was a common alternative English spelling before 1921; the country was admitted to the League of Nations under this name, and it continued in the international organization's records until December 1926.

 
Currency / Language 
ISO Currency Symbol Significant figures
EUR Euro 2
ISO Language
ET Estonian language
RU Russian language
Neighbourhood - Country  

Map - Estonia (Republic of Estonia)

Latitude / Longitude : 59° 0' 0" N / 26° 0' 0" E | Time zone : UTC+2:0 / UTC+3 | Currency : EUR | Telephone : 372  

Map

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Photograph

Estonia-Law-Piirivalve mootorkelgud
Law
Piirivalve mootorkelgud
Estonia-Government-Stenbock House
Government
Stenbock House
Estonia-Parliament-Riigikogu hoone, Kaupo Kalda foto, 2016
Parliament
Riigikogu hoone, Kaupo Kalda foto, 2016
Estonia-Restoration of Independence-Lennart Meri 1998
Restoration of Independence
Lennart Meri 1998
Estonia-Geography-Luftbild Finnischer Meerbusen
Geography
Luftbild Finnischer Meerbusen
Estonia-Second World War-Estlandssvenska flyktingar
Second World War
Estlandssvenska flyktingar
Estonia-Second World War-Red Army entering into Estonia in 1939
Second World War
Red Army entering into Estonia in 1939
Estonia-Second World War-TLA 1465 1 973 Varemetes Harju tänav, vasakul Kuld Lõvi varemed 1944
Second World War
TLA 1465 1 973 Varemetes Harju tänav, vasakul Kuld Lõvi varemed 1944
Estonia-Independence-Soomusrong nr 2 Valgas 1919
Independence
Soomusrong nr 2 Valgas 1919
Estonia-Independence-Declaration of Estonian independence in Pärnu
Independence
Declaration of Estonian independence in Pärnu
Estonia-Russian Era and National Awakening-Perno Postimeees, Nr 1
Russian Era and National Awakening
Perno Postimeees, Nr 1
Estonia-Swedish Era-Academia Gustaviana
Swedish Era
Academia Gustaviana
Estonia-Middle Ages-Kuressaare Arensburg
Middle Ages
Kuressaare Arensburg
Estonia-Sports-Nabi, Heiki.IMG 8732
Sports
Nabi, Heiki.IMG 8732
Estonia-Cuisine-Mulgipuder
Cuisine
Mulgipuder
Estonia-Architecture-Musée de plein air (Tallinn) (7644656256)
Architecture
Musée de plein air (Tallinn) (7644656256)
Estonia-Middle Ages-Medieval Livonia 1260
Middle Ages
Medieval Livonia 1260
Estonia-Prehistory and Viking Age-KumnaHoardArtfs
Prehistory and Viking Age
KumnaHoardArtfs
Estonia-Prehistory and Viking Age-Kalmeväli
Prehistory and Viking Age
Kalmeväli
Estonia
Estonia
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